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How does it work?

The electrostatic loudspeaker is very simple in concept, but difficult to construct successfully in practice. lts operation relies on electrostatic attraction and repulsion, in much the same way as a piece of thin paper attracted to a rubber balloon that is charged by rubbing it against fabric.

The electrically charged ultra-thin conductive film diaphragm is tensioned and placed close between two metal grids. When a high voltage audio signal is applied to the metal grids, the diaphragm moves in  response to the signal, moving toward the grid which at that instant is oppositely charged, and away from the grid which has the same charge as the diaphragm. The diaphragm responds in an essentially  linear manner, producing sound waves which are a very accurate reproduction of the original sound.

illustration

Why use ESL?

     Traditional loudspeaker system      Electrostatic loudspeaker system
Small diaphragm sounding area, big pressure variations, high distortion.
Double-face sounding area, numerous sounding sources, small pressure variations, low distortion.
Coil-driven cone motion, producing large diffraction.
Flat diaphragm, producing sound waves of very little diffraction. The result is live performance in the room!
Thick diaphragm with high inertia, wave-shooting apparatus is needed to restore and support. High degree distortion, unable to restore tiny musical signals.
The weight of the diaphragm is equal to that of a piece of hair. Able to restore any tiny musical signals.
Single side sounding.
Double side sounding push-pull drive, low distortion, wide sound field, Hi-Fi!
Magnetic force drive. Easy magnetization.
Electric field drive. No magnetization.
Working state is low voltage high current. Slew rate is small.
Working state is high voltage small current. Slew rate is big.
 

Breakthrough Technology

1. DC input

The traditional electrostatic loudspeakers all adopt 110V ~ 220V AC power supplies, which are difficult to meet the international standard for safety. Through many years of research and accurate calculations, we drew a conclusion that a 12V / 0.15A power supply can fully satisfy the amount of energy required for driving the diaphragms of our highly efficient electrostatic loudspeakers, hence it can ensure the safety of the device as the service power is less than 2W.

2. Nanotechnology-applied sounding membrane

The electrostatic-driven membrane requires a conduction treatment in order to vibrate in an alternating electric field. We have developed our own nano-coating material with strong adhesive properties, which allows the vibrating diaphragm to have lower requirements for energy, faster response, in-phase change with the music signal and more penetrating sound.

3. Cell-structure signal plates

The signal plates of the electrostatic loudspeaker have two functions: 1) sound channelling: the sound produced by the vibrating membrane comes out from the sounding plates, so it is necessary to have as high a hole-density as possible for good sound penetration; 2) the plates are also electrodes, generating the alternating electric field to drive the membrane, so it should have good conductivity, which requires as large a conduction area and thickness as possible (but in the case of excessive thickness, the hole resonance may affect the high frequency); the traditional electrostatic sounding plates consist of thin punched plates with straight or diagonal round-hole arrangements. However, only the cell-structure punch has the best sound penetration performance and the most uniform distribution of conduction area (of the static electric field), which meets two index requirements for the perfect electrostatic sounding plates, boasting the strongest electric field, highest efficiency, lowest distortion and best comprehensive performance under the condition of the same hole-density. 

4. Surface protection technology

The electrostatic loudspeaker can be considered as a capacitor that uses air as the conductive medium. Its operating state is greatly influenced by the ambient conditions (temperature and humidity), mainly because: 1) the intensity of the electric field is affected by the changes of medium coefficient; 2) the drain current between both sounding plates will increase under high temperature and high humidity; 3) the leakage of polarization voltage of the vibrating diaphragm is greatly influenced by the changes of medium (air). We apply special surface protection treatment to the sounding plates and vibrating membrane, which acts as an insulation layer against temperature and humidity, and it also acts as a cut-off layer of current and voltage between both sounding plates as well as between the sounding plates and the vibrating diaphragm. Therefore, the problems that exist in the traditional electrostatic loudspeakers can be fundamentally solved, and the loudspeakers are therefore less influenced by the environment and more durable.

There is a maximum limit for the input voltage for all electrostatic loudspeakers, because when the voltage increases to a certain level, the air between the sounding plates and the vibrating diaphragm will be punctured which will damage the loudspeaker. The higher the allowable maximum input voltage is, the higher the acceptable power of the loudspeaker. Relying on the advanced treatment technology for sounding plate and vibrating diaphragm, our gap (between sounding plate and vibrating diaphragm) is 1/3 shorter than that of the traditional electrostatic loudspeaker under the condition of the same acceptable power of the loudspeaker. The intensity of the electric field is inversely proportional to the square of the gap and the small gap requires the small amplitude and small distortion of the vibrating diaphragm, so our electrostatic loudspeaker has higher efficiency, lower distortion and faster response. 

5. Unit-type production

The traditional electrostatic loudspeaker adopts the single-piece massive vibrating diaphragm design. For this massive but extremely thin diaphragm, it is difficult to make it flat, not to mention the multiprocessing and fitting with other fittings. Due to so many working procedures, it is difficult to operate and it is almost impossible to ensure complete uniformity. However, the above procedures have some influence on the performance of the loudspeaker. Our electrostatic loudspeaker adopts the unit-type production. The single massive piece is divided into multiple small pieces, the dimensions of all modules are controlled by the moulds for the conformity and the fittings are mounted with the fixture to ensure the conformity of assembly, so as to ensure the high quality and conformity of our electrostatic loudspeaker to the maximum.

6. Multi-unit complex

For the full band electrostatic loudspeaker, we adopt the division and coordination design of the large and small units: the large part for LF replay and the small part for MF and HF. The dimensions of the units are confirmed after the repeated simulations, calculations and tests by the computer so as to make it all the more conform to the acoustics principles with lower frequency of LF replay and higher frequency of HF replay. The complex design of two vertical bass and alt line sources removes the pressure of room ceiling and floor on the sound so that the replay sound is more relaxed, which greatly improves the level and vertical diffusion of the loudspeaker, yielding a wider sound field and more live effects . 

   

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